Leadership Styles paper

Writing Spaces | An Open Textbook Project

Date of publication: 2017-09-01 17:39

The 6976-6985 birth cohorts for men and the 6986-85 birth cohort for women appear to drink more heavily than earlier or later birth cohorts indicating the need for prevention efforts targeting these groups and the expectation of increased future alcohol-related problems and harms in these cohorts.

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Headings can convey the major topics discussed in your paper. A research report (see the Lacy article on analysis of variance) typically contains four basic components:


With regards the body of the Abstract you need to make a clear statement of the topic of your paper and your research question. You need to say how your research was/is being undertaken. For example, is it empirical or theoretical? Is it quantitative or qualitative? Perhaps it follows the critical research method. What value are your findings and to whom will they be of use?

Writing Research Papers - Rice University

Writing Spaces is an open textbook project for college-level writing studies courses. Each volume in the Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing series contains peer-reviewed collections of essays about writing—all composed by teachers for students—with each book available for download for free under a Creative Commons license.

6. Function : The function of the Discussion is to interpret your results in light of what was already known about the subject of the investigation, and to explain our new understanding of the problem after taking your results into consideration. The Discussion will always connect to the Introduction by way of the question(s) or hypotheses you posed and the literature you cited, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the Introduction. Instead, it tells how your study has moved us forward from the place you left us at the end of the Introduction.

Hypotheses should be bold assertions of expectations that lend themselves to falsification. They gain in credibility as they survive attempts to test them -- ., to falsify them. (Admittedly, it is intellectually more satisfying to propose hypotheses that are supported rather than falsified through data analysis. Whether your hypotheses are supported or falsified will have no effect on the paper's grade.) Whenever possible, formulate directional hypotheses, which invite falsification more readily than non-directional hypotheses. (We will discuss the difference between the two soon.)

6. This is where you present the results you've gotten. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text. Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened t hat goes in th e Discussion.

The purpose of a results section is to present and illustrate your findings. Make this section a completely objective report of the results, and save all interpretation for the discussion.

The watchword for this type of writing is structure . The format of your paper should reveal the structure of your thinking. Devices such as paragraphing, headings, indentation, and enumeration actually help your reader see the major points you want to make. If you tend to string sentences together without organizing your thoughts into paragraphs, you are not helping him or her make sense of your writing. As a rule of thumb, if you type a full page (double spaced) without indenting for a new paragraph, you almos tcertainly have run one thought into another and have missed an opportunity to differentiate your ideas.

The Abstract should then briefly describe the work to be discussed in your paper and also give a concise summary of the findings. Finally your Abstract should not include diagrams and in general references are not required in the Abstract.

Function : An Appendix contains information that is non-essential to understanding of the paper, but may present information that further clarifies a point without burdening the body of the presentation. An appendix is an optional part of the paper, and is only rarely found in published papers.

Nominating the target audience that your abstract addresses, will help the Programme Committee correctly assign your paper to a relevant session. Please choose ONE that helps define your submission.

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